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Reproduction Cartridges and Elegant Piracy

How a byproduct of emulation became gaming’s Cuban Cigar.

Analysis by John Learned, .

Walk around the average video game conference or gaming expo and chances are pretty good that you’re going to see some rare stock. From a complete package of Snatcher on Sega CD to the only copy of Spider-Man: Web of Fire that you’re likely to ever see in person, some of the best reasons to see vendor tables is to dig through the rare and beautiful diamonds out in the wild. Without question, there are games out there that are perpetually hard to find, and more get rare year after year.

But these conferences, expos, and swap meets are changing. While the average passerby can find tables littered with NES, Master System, and PlayStation software, increasingly, there are tables of other, similar goods priced just a little higher and kept in much better condition than half of what you just rummaged through at that last guy’s table of Famicom stuff. To the untrained eye, these are finds indeed, having unfamiliar titles like Earthbound Zero and Castlevania: Blood Moon. Then your nerd synapse snaps back into place and you remember how many NES Castlevanias actually exist and it hits you: This table is selling unlicensed games. So is that table over there. And that one. And half of this whole place. In some expos, vendors with a stock of official releases might be turning into the rarest find of them all.

Unlicensed reproduction cartridges are becoming more common to the collector space by the day. As they become more pervasive, the unwitting game enthusiast needs to know what they are, their actual collectability, and the cottage industry’s questionable legality.

Cool for a collection, but not totally on the up and up.

These unlicensed games are known by many names; "rom-hacks" and "fan translations" being common, but none so much as the "reproduction cartridge" (or simply "repro"), a term that tidies up what these games actually are. Essentially a byproduct of software emulation, repro cartridges can be just as many types of games as there are names to call them. All of them are, basically, games that you know and love altered to one extent or another, and flashed onto an existing cartridge that will work in your Atari, NES, SNES, Genesis, or any other cartridge-based system. Ultimately harmless to own and maybe even a nice curio to round out a collection, the questionable legality of selling them has turned them into something of a Cuban cigar for retro game collecting, though, perhaps without the cultural cachet.

In laymen’s terms, it works like this: several years ago, talented programmers concocted emulators, which essentially found a way to trick a computer, phone, or other device into thinking it was an NES, Genesis, or even an Apple IIe computer. Actual software that runs on these emulators are roms, which are the image of a game or other computer program run through the emulator to work. By themselves, they’re a wonder of computer engineering in that they can help preserve the winding (and largely unkempt) history of the video game medium. Repro cartridges basically reverse engineer what was already reverse engineered so these altered roms can play on an original piece of hardware. I asked one repro seller that chose not to be named for this article how this works, and it was explained clearly:

"[You] burn the rom image onto a chip the same size as the rom. This chip is then put onto an adapter that mimics the pinout of an original SNES chip. Once this is done, I need to apply that to a suitable NTSC donor. Many times this is a game like Madden."

In this example, Madden cartridges for older consoles being common as dirt, buying a stack of them at a store that still trades in old cartridges will probably only set you back a buck or two apiece. Factor in the cost of the chips, the time it takes to flash it onto a rom onto it, and then whatever you pay to print your own labels, and most sellers turn right back around and sell them for $45-$65 a pop making a nice little profit for an afternoon’s work. Want to preserve those copies of old football games, though? "There are companies making new boards for this," the anonymous seller told me, "so originals don’t need to be sacrificed."

Radical Dreamers was never released outside of Japan, let alone on a cartridge.

Generally, repro carts fall into three categories: the first, and perhaps least common, is a broad umbrella of prototypes or games that never made it to official home release at all. There are many, many video game roms floating around the internet that were never finished by a developer, and usually for good reason like the Genesis/ MegaDrive version of Ninja Gaiden or, perhaps more famously, the unreleased GBA Resident Evil that hit the internet a few years ago. The other side to this is are games from the proto-download era that were only playable via Nintendo’s Japanese satellite network Satellaview or the Sega Channel such as the Chrono Trigger sequel Radical Dreamers, Mega Man: The Wily Wars, or Golden Axe III. Having only lived a brief life on ephemeral services that never intended to package games and sell them to retail, a large set of franchise fans can play games that were once officially-released games now lost in ether.

Fan Translations are the second most common. These are games never localized for the western market with English translations applied to the rom before being flashed onto a cartridge to replace their original text. While there has always been a rabid import scene for game collectors, text-heavy games of the 8- and 16-bit era (like RPGs) were almost unplayable without a passing knowledge of Japanese. Over the years, heroic fans of these games painstakingly recode them to translate and place in English text for the enjoyment of the curious and the hardcore alike. The most famous tend to be from famed franchises and developers that never released their entire catalog in the West like Squaresoft’s action/ RPG Seiken Densetsu 3 ("Secret of Mana 2") or strategy RPG Bahamut Lagoon. "I think fan translations are the highest sellers that I’ve noticed," says the repro seller. "I think the reason they sell the best is because of the quality. It’s ha

rd for a single person hacker to achieve the quality as the original games."

Some come close, though, he said, and here we find the most pervasive repro cartridges on the market: rom-hacks. These are games either slightly changed (like adding Shadow the Hedgehog into the first Sonic game), or are a total rebuild from the ground up using the assets found in the original rom, thereby making unofficial "sequels" to beloved franchises. Gaming’s most famous characters are the ones most commonly found to have rom-hacks, the vast majority of which are from Nintendo’s stable of characters.

Repro cartridge dealers are rarely programmers themselves. Since all of these are games ripped from files found on the internet, the differences from seller to seller are largely cosmetic to the cartridge. Some more artistic or enterprising sales teams will go so far as to recreate packaging approximate to an original SNES or Genesis release, complete with printed instruction manual and cardboard inserts. This ratchets up the price for each game, given the cost of printing and manufacturing (and coming up with the clamshells for Genesis cartridges). Taking all of this together, you’d be right in inferring that there’s no real collectability to these whatsoever past sentimental value and how you like one seller’s label printing over the next. A quick search on eBay for these kinds of games usually shows off the best repros, at least in terms of quality of packaging.

People, these are not "rare."

But this same search will also reveal darker side of the repro market: full on game counterfeits. As the process to produce a cartridge and print custom labels and boxes have gotten easier and easier over time, the more dubious dealers in the repro scene will make complete new packages for games like the infamous Nintendo World Championship cartridge. The uninitiated may not know that there are only a handful of legitimate World Champion carts floating around, so the $100 you might pay from an unscrupulous dealer seems like a steal. Like many checklists of things to watch out for on the internet will tell you; buyer beware.

All of this, of course, is less than perfectly legal, much like the software emulation scene that birthed the repro cartridge market. While owning a cartridge by itself isn’t a crime, exchanging money for one is where things get dicey. The dealer is generally the one at fault as they are selling pirated software. Curiously, this doesn’t stop many, many dealers from openly selling games on the internet on their own sites and, again, places like eBay. "I personally have never been served with any cease and desist letters or emails," said my unnamed sales person. A note on that, this seller has been in the repro games market since 2012, and one can assume that others have been doing it at least as long, if not much longer.

So, really, where is Nintendo in all of this? They certainly have the wherewithal to make an example out of a smalltime dealer. Why aren’t Capcom and Konami’s lawyers making phone calls? As recently history has shown us, they definitely could use the cash. How isn’t Disney cracking down on some of these guys for selling games with their IP? They are absolutely not an enemy you would want. "[I think] reproductions are rampant enough that Nintendo has most likely noticed," I’m told. So, what’s the deal?

The logical conclusion is that it might just be too big to combat at this point. Much like emulated games found easily with an internet search, a seller can quickly and cheaply gather the materials to make repro games and throw them on the web. If they get caught or slapped with a cease and desist letter, they still have trade shows to sell games at, which do not regulate what can and cannot be sold. Any brick and mortar retailer that keeps tabs on their inventory and sales cannot openly sell them, either, as it would be no different than pirated DVDs bought by a sidewalk vendor, but less scrupulous dealers trade in a small stash of them, as long as you’re willing to pay cash. Some retailers do take a more honest stance, though. The picture of the Super Famicom cartridge of FEDA attached to this story was purchased from a different vendor that only sold repros along with original cartridges which are still cheap enough to obtain. He wasn’t entirely sure if that made everything above board.

But it might still help his conscience.

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Comments 32

  • Avatar for cldmstrsn #1 cldmstrsn 2 years ago
    What a great article! as a collector myself I have looked at a couple of the repros but as you said most of the time its games that were never released here like Terranigma, Secret of Mana 2 and the like. I have been doing it long enough that I know what to look for and not be scammed but that's the risk you take.
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  • Avatar for orient #2 orient 2 years ago
    Great article! Never owned one myself but I can see the appeal, especially to avoid paying hundreds for a rare original.
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  • Avatar for SigurdVolsung #3 SigurdVolsung 2 years ago
    I come at these from a gamer angle, not a collector. And if a company does not provide me reasonable access to the games, then I fall across the pirate line or romhack line. I love old games, and a lot of very Japanese games that never were released in the states. So if there is a fan translation that I can play, then I am willing to pay the hacker for it. If the company offered the game to me on a system that is reasonable for me to own or obtain, then by all means, that is my first option.
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  • Avatar for Flojomojo #4 Flojomojo 2 years ago
    Artificial scarcity sucks and so do people who exploit it.
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  • Avatar for soloskywalker #5 soloskywalker 2 years ago
    Great article! More like this please.
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  • Avatar for KaiserWarrior #6 KaiserWarrior 2 years ago
    I'd say that a large part of why the big companies don't crack down on repro carts is simply because they don't care. Their only interest in their old games is in the digital market, Virtual Console and similar services... and the audience for those services is not at all the audience for repro carts.

    One thing we know for certain is that this medium is largely uninterested in its own history, save for where that history can be exploited for a quick buck or two. Every now and again we get a collection release, but those releases are almost always just quick emulation jobs, and more often than not are lazy ones at that -- like the various Sega collections having Sonic 3 and Sonic & Kuckles, but not Sonic 3 & Knuckles because that would require one extra line of code to handle the lock-on emulation. Or the Megaman collection using the Complete Works versions and not offering the original NES/Famicom versions because it was easier to port over the Playstation code, and Megaman 8 having audio sample rate problems (bosses with sped-up voices).

    Honestly, I'd love to see some bonafide re-releases of legitimate carts, and/or genuine hardware re-releases rather than the endless slew of cheap bootleg "retro" consoles that get made. Heck, I know that it'll never happen, but how cool would it be to have Nintendo release a New Super Nintendo Entertainment System with modern connectors, original gamepad ports, and a card slot that would take a HuCard-style chip with SNES/SFC game(s) on it in addition to an original cartridge port? That way collectors can have legit, fully-compatible hardware to play their carts on, and people just interested in the history of the medium but not so much in shelling out for original carts/hardware can use the new cards.
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  • Avatar for nilcam #7 nilcam 2 years ago
    My wife just bought one of these - GBA Fire Emblem: Fuuin no Tsurugi. To be fair, she knew exactly what she was getting. She bought it from a vendor at a retro game con and the seller explained exactly what he was selling. I have a flash cart for my DS for fan translations but do not have one for GBA. The seller used cool clear blue shells that were custom molded and quite cool.
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  • Avatar for yuberus #8 yuberus 2 years ago
    I draw a distinction between homebrewed games, reproduction/counterfeit games, and romhacks myself. Coming more from the pre-crash side of things as far as these go than newer platforms, I love and appreciate homebrews, prototype releases, and clearly demarcated bootlegs of existing games, but just can't get into romhacks ala Mario or Zelda at all. Still cool to see coverage of it!
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  • Avatar for Unix187 #9 Unix187 2 years ago
    Great article! I have a few repro games in my collection, and I am of the opinion that if its a game that never came out in the states and I really want to play it, I would way rather have a physical cartridge of it to play on my console rather than emulate it. There was a great company, that catered to this end with quality reproductions, called Timewalk games. I purchased Final Fantasy 4,5,6 from them in CIB. I have to say I was quite impressed, the price was kinda high (just under 100), but the craftsmanship was top notch. Seeing what Timewalk has done with repros inspired me to round out my collection by making boxes for games that I didn't have a box for, I have a friend that runs a digital press and I have some Photoshop skills so why not? I have a well curated collection now at a fraction of the cost of trying to buy everything CIB. I know what some would say, about that type of piracy, and I frankly don't care. My collection wont be sold till I die, and all my repro boxes state that they are repro boxes on the back so there is no confusion as to what they actually are. I do understand that it can hurt our hobby, there are many unscrupulous people out there trying to make a buck at the cost of someones ignorance. I don't condone someone, say making a repro of a Little Sampson and trying to pass it off as the real thing. Or trying to sell off repro boxes for games with out markings stating that they are indeed a reprint. At the end of the day though, most people that set out to make these reproductions in a lot of ways are trying to keep the culture alive and that is what I miss. These days even when you buy a physical copy of a game, somethings missing and its not just the manual.
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  • Avatar for Dlpz87 #10 Dlpz87 2 years ago
    Awesome article! I finally have a reference to send my friends after I blabber on about Homebrews, Repros, and Flash Carts. I was just at the Midwest Gaming Classic (in MIL, WI) this past weekend and, while I didn't see much, this article will help some people understand what they were looking at when they did encounter a reproduction. Or, for those people who bought the $200 Final Fantasy demake, they'll groan when they realize they can find it elsewhere.
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  • Avatar for KakiOkami #11 KakiOkami 2 years ago
    It's interesting to see just how far some people will go to have an authentic experience with a retro game/system and how most people don't care and just want to play the game. I guess I fall a little in the middle of the sides. I prefer authentic but it gets harder and harder to spend money on the complete retro package from eBay these days, but I haven't gone so far as to just play everything on an emulator either.

    As long as games aren't being sold as originals when they're clearly a repro, and all our favorite game companies refuse to accept that retro games are a huge business, then we're going to have to relive the glory days of gaming through any means necessary. Know what you're buying, know why your buying it, and enjoy the game!

    Now when it comes to the legit games that never came to the U.S. that I'm truly interested in (Terranigma, Secret of Mana 2, etc) I'm seriously looking into getting some fan translation repros so I can experience them. Such a shame they didn't come here. I know why certain types of games wouldn't be a great fit for 99% of U.S. gamers, but c'mon! These were great RPGs that the U.S. market (even back then) had proven were big things.
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  • Avatar for Spectreman #12 Spectreman 2 years ago
    Going to interesting if those repro cartridges are allowed in Gamestop future retrogame plans. Maybe if in future Nintendo start to do your own repro things heat up.
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  • Avatar for kidgorilla #13 kidgorilla 2 years ago
    @Spectreman That'll happen after the unicorns come over to teach me how to surf
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  • Avatar for camchow #14 camchow 2 years ago
    Back in the GBA days I bought a Pokemon Sapphire off ebay that turned out to be a repo from asia. I had no idea at the time that I bought it but it became obvious when it would always crash when trying to use any connectivity functions from GBA to GBA trading or the gamecube Pokemon Colosseum (the one with shadow pokemon or something). The cartridge ended up dying on me and now I'm too weary to buy any cartridges from ebay or third party vendors. Unless a game is available in a way that the original company gets my money (eshop, remakes etc) then I'm no longer going to worry about finding digital alternatives, I can't say I lose any sleep in my decision of not giving money to random people on the internet that had nothing to do with the games creation anyway. If a repro is basically someone taking a rom and flashing it to a cart anyways, I'll just skip the middle man and keep my money.

    ..I guess I'm not much of a collector anymore though. Oh well. I remember the appeal, I guess I just grew out of that after having to move across the country one too many times with suitcases packed full of dvds and carts. haha
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  • Avatar for Monkey-Tamer #15 Monkey-Tamer 2 years ago
    Rom hacks are a minefield of utter crap to find a gem. Thankfully reviewers have narrowed down what is worth playing and what isn't. I won't pay money for them to play on my legit SNES. They're the poster children for why Nintendo regulated their game library. Playing a few goes to show how much thought went into games that are still fun today like Super Metroid and Mario World. Some hacks are made just to be brutally difficult. This is why I stopped playing Super Metroid Redesign. You had to unload so many shots to kill anything it made the game tedious. It completely ruined what would have been an excellent fresh area to explore. I did enjoy Super Metroid Project Base. It added some new colors and passages, but kept the bulk of the game the same. I may even do my own rom hack as a hobby.
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  • Avatar for jgoreham #16 jgoreham 2 years ago
    @camchow Do you still have the cart? Some of our local classic games sellers (at the flea market, small business guys) like to have them so they can use them for education purposes, show customers samples of pirated carts. If you still have it and there is a guy selling game boy games at your local flea market every weekend, ask him if he needs it for something like that.

    I try to avoid repros of the stuff I collect (unless it's a fan translation or something I know what I'm getting into) but I have a few purchased or acquired in error that I keep as oddities.
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  • Avatar for hal9k #17 hal9k 2 years ago
    Excellent article! I just wanted to say how much I appreciate the time and effort that people put into fan translations. On the other hand, ROM hacks have never really been my thing, but that article on route randomizers did change my perspective a bit.

    I have to admit that I don't really understand the appeal of owning a repro cart (I'm happy enough to play fan translations through emulators - certain genres, like strategy RPG's, adapt particularly well to smartphones, and playing on the original hardware isn't as important to me), but this was an educational guide to that scene.
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  • Avatar for sean697 #18 sean697 2 years ago
    This is really no different then all the Asian grey market knock offs of the 90,s. The difference being those were done during the consoles active lifecycle, and these modern Repros are far higher quality. The original games I have no problem with as there is no active licensing structure to liscense a Genesis game for example. It's dead hardware. I don't think it's an issue. Especially when fan carts like Pier Solar are being released on Sony and Nintendo virtual consoles as digital games. Repros of rare games I have a problem with. Fan translations I do not.
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  • Avatar for victorehunter #19 victorehunter 2 years ago
    Really great article but there's just one point I'd like to make after having talked with a very prolific translator:

    Not only are you navigating the legal grey area of the roms when buying a repro cart, but the programmers of the hack or the translation themselves are rarely contacted. Knowing that the makers of repro carts don't even spread the wealth to the working contemporaries that did the translation or designed the new levels is a bit of a deal-breaker for me. I can understand not reaching out to Nintendo, but at least to the other fans that have done the work to make these games playable seems like the least one could do. Also, I've run into a lot of instances where repro cart makers use fan-made art to decorate boxes or inserts without contacting or giving credit to the artist.

    Believe me, I understand the appeal of repros. Rose Colored Gaming makes some amazing stuff that is ACTUALLY limited and collectible. I would kill for a nice, well-designed physical copy of Live-A-Live or BS Zelda. Unfortunately the fact that even the minimum amount of effort to credit the programmers and artists and designers kind of ruins some of the draw for me. If most of the people who actively worked on the title's translation or development aren't behind the repro scene then I find it hard to be. It is a really fascinating sub-sect of collector culture though.
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  • Avatar for SargeSmash #20 SargeSmash 2 years ago
    I've actually made a couple of my own reproductions (Earthbound Zero and Chronicles of the Radia War from a couple of Deja Vu carts). I'm totally okay with these being for personal use. I'm even okay with people selling if they're just charging for labor and materials.

    I do think, however, that those making repros should ask the original author of the hack or translation if at all possible whether they approve of the sale of the repro. Some are cool with it... and some obviously aren't.
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  • Avatar for kazriko #21 kazriko 2 years ago
    I've found that sometimes the counterfeit carts will fool even Gamestop. I purchased a copy of Layton and the Diabolical Box from them once only to find when I put it in the system that it was a fake. It showed up as a Star Wars game on the menu, but was professor layton when you went into it. At least they took it back for full credit and I bought a legitimate copy of Unwound Future instead.

    Actually, I once accidentally ended up with a FF6 for GBA counterfeit cartridge off ebay. I think I may still have it somewhere. I didn't play it because the save functionality was broken. I bought a real copy sometime later.Edited April 2015 by kazriko
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  • Avatar for metalangel #22 metalangel 2 years ago
    Fascinating. The only retro system I'm really interested in collecting games for is the Sega CD (cradles complete package of Snatcher) so I don't really worry about cartridges when I go to retro stores and flea markets, but this is interesting to read nonetheless. It reminds me of a letter to Gamepro way back in 1994 where a guy who lived in Thailand found he'd been sold a bootleg DKC cart by a department store! He realized the problem when the game wouldn't save, and that was because the bootleg cart had no battery! (he also stated he went back and managed to persuade the very reluctant staff to hand over the genuine cart that he'd paid good money for)

    I suppose I would be interested if a repro existed that would use a memory stick to hold that system's entire library of games. I'm sure it probably does exist, like the R4 did for the DS.
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  • Avatar for KaiserWarrior #23 KaiserWarrior 2 years ago
    @metalangel You might want to look up the Everdrive or the PowerPak. There are a number of flash carts available for a wide variety of classic systems that will hold, if not the entire library, then a very large chunk of it. Not my personal cup of tea as if I'm playing on original hardware, I want to use original carts, but for people that want to go the halfway route it's a very cost-effective solution.
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  • Avatar for buckupprincess #24 buckupprincess 2 years ago
    I'm really impressed with how intriguing I found this article. I've recently found myself purchasing repro carts to enjoy otherwise unattainable games with a proper translation. I'm a proponent of the repro industry for fan translations or non-localized ROMs but as an original replacement or straight counterfeit, I'm not a fan in the slightest. I'd love to see publishers take note of some of the more popular titles and find a way to properly produce them but I have a feeling (especially with the age of a lot of these titles) that's a fleeting hope. Come on English Mother 3, Nintendo!
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  • Avatar for NinjaMic #25 NinjaMic 2 years ago
    Cuban cigar is such a great way to describe it.
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  • Avatar for Thad #26 Thad 2 years ago
    I got someone to put the fan translation of Final Fantasy 3 on an NES cartridge about a decade back. That's as far as I've gone into this space, but it [i]is[/i] a conversation piece when friends drop by and look closely at my games.
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  • Avatar for Active-ate #27 Active-ate 2 years ago
    Excellent article. Loved it.
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  • Avatar for sean697 #28 sean697 2 years ago
    @metalangel Uhmm those do exist. Just do a little searching on the term everdrive.
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  • Avatar for michaelburns64 #30 michaelburns64 2 years ago
    Since nobody else has mentioned it here, let's talk about Mother 3. It's my favorite game of all time, and I never would have played it as many times as I have if it weren't for the existence of reproduction carts. I always find it a bit curious when people get up in arms over the sale of unofficial translations on actual cartridges, as if the existence of those cartridges is somehow robbing the translation teams of th fruits of their labor. Oh, wait - the fruits of their labor are seeing others enjoy their work, because they can't collect any money from it.

    The truth is, translation groups like the ones that brought Mother 3 to non-Japanese audiences don't say they want you to buy cartridges with their work on them because they legally can't say that. They've never asked for a cent for their work, because Nintendo would shut them down if they did, what with all the publicity they've gotten for Mother 3 over the years. But OF COURSE these teams want you to play their translations on cartridges. Emulation sucks! Who wants to sit at a computer or use a crappy emulator on handheld system when you could play the game on original hardware like it was intended?

    Anyway... am I rambling? I guess the point I'm trying to make is that I'm not ashamed at all for the repros I've bought, and I'm proud to have them in my collection, which is 99% legit games. If the conpanies that made these games don't want to sell them to us in English, someone else will, and it doesn't make a lick of difference to me.Edited April 2015 by michaelburns64
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