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True Tales from Localization Hell

COVER STORY: Three veterans of video game translation recount their most harrowing projects.

Interview by Bob Mackey, .

Clyde Mandelin

Unlike the other localizers featured in this cover story, Clyde Mandelin began his career in a much different place: the fan translation scene. During the "emulation boom" of the late '90s/early '00s, Mandelin embraced this emerging technology by translating Japanese games that never made it to America. Thanks to Mandelin (and some of his helpful hobbyist friends), we now have playable English versions of RPGs like Live-A-Live, Bahamut Lagoon, and Star Ocean, as well as other oddities like Famicom Detective Club Part II.

Mandelin would soon take his localization skills to the anime scene, translating notable titles like One Piece, Lupin the 3rd, Dragon Ball, and Detective Conan, but fanatic EarthBound devotees know him best for heading up the fan translation of Mother 3. While several translation groups took a stab at converting this long-awaited game into English, Clyde's team actually completed this monumental task in October 2008, resulting in a finished product that remains incredibly faithful to the flavor and quality Nintendo established with their EarthBound localization back in 1995.

USgamer: So, let’s talk about Mother 3. What went into making this game possible to play in English, and how long did you put it off, just out of fear of all the work that would have to go into it?

Clyde Mandelin: So, it got released in Japan in—what was it—April of 2006, and for the longest time I didn’t want to work on it, because I knew it was a whole lot of work. And the day it came out, people were sort of expecting zero-day translations of it, which was like, pretty ridiculous, but I can understand, because people didn’t know at the time.

USg: What was the timeline like for this project?

CM: So, we had a couple contacts inside Nintendo, and it was sort of like a two-pronged approach. First, we were going to contact all the different media and get them to talk about Mother 3, and maybe that would help spread hype about it. We also had some contacts inside Nintendo, and we knew there was going to be a meeting about whether or not they should do it.

We knew who was involved. So, we were going to try to use our contacts to go in there and show them all this data and show them how many people are interested nowadays, how much it would cost. It was a whole bunch of numbers and stuff like that, and we prepared all that... So, there was that, and we didn’t really hear anything back until the end of the year when there were some rumblings from [Nintendo's localization division] Treehouse about how we’re not planning to work on it, so, "Go get your Ness on in Smash," or something. It got people really angry. That’s when we decided that we were going to pool a bunch of the talents from the community to make our own patch. That was November, December 2006 when we decided that we were going to start.

USg: So, what were the steps involved initially in actually dumping the text, figuring out how to approach it?

CM: It’s a lot easier nowadays, now that everything’s sort of in a file system, like, with the start of the DS and PSP, a lot of disk-based systems. But with Game Boy Advance and earlier, everything is just a big blob of data. So, when you dump a [game] cartridge, you just get a whole bunch of 1s and 0s, you don’t know where anything is. So you have to go and use tools to sift through it all and find it all.

And after that comes the hard part. Sometimes [the text is] compressed, sometimes it’s encrypted... From what I recall, Mother 3’s text data is not compressed, because it’s already a big cartridge, at the time. I don’t think it was encoded in any way. But you couldn’t open up a text editor and start plugging away at it; you had to extract the data, so we did that. And that involves extracting the script text, which is usually the hardest part, because there’s so much text involved. There’s items, enemies, item descriptions, and then there’s just weird, weird side text that you don’t expect, like, during cutscenes and things like that. So, there’s all kinds of little pieces of text you have to go and dig around in and document.

USg: Did you have to make more room for the English text, given how English text takes up a lot more space than Japanese text? Did you have to expand the word boxes? How did that work exactly?

CM: We had that problem, and the Mother 3 ROM is already the maximum size for a Game Boy Advance cartridge. You can’t expand the ROM or anything like that. So, we had to do some creative solutions. One involved rearranging the game’s own data, like Tetris, arrange it nicely to open up some room for us. We did some strange compression. It was some pretty interesting stuff, and it kind of just barely fit when all was said and done.

(Image courtesy of Starmen.net.)

USg: So, what was your role in the project, and what was your general timeline for this?

CM: We started probably in June 2007-ish, and then we released in October of the next year. For the most part it was just me and one other person, his name was Jeff. Together we are both, sort of like the founders of the EarthBound hacking community, so we sort of have experience hacking EarthBound games. We kind of already had that teamwork going, so we just dived right into it. So, both of us did the programming. He did a lot of the tools, that really sped up everything.

It probably would have taken an extra year without his tools. I did pretty much most of the translation, and then a friend of mine who works for Fangamer and works for [Mother series creator/writer] Shigesato Itoi did some of the item names, the enemy descriptions, stuff like that. Sort of like the secondary text. So, basically, it was us three, we were the core of the team. People would come and go. If we were to run into a problem, we would ask someone for help, or someone would show up to help, and they would just disappear a day later. So, I guess altogether we had maybe 15 people, if you want to count them as part of the team.

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Comments 29

  • Avatar for colesabin #1 colesabin A year ago
    Great article Bob!
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  • Avatar for kidgorilla #2 kidgorilla A year ago
    This is so great
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  • Avatar for grappler51 #3 grappler51 A year ago
    Fascinating article, thanks Bob! I love these in-depth looks at little known areas of the games industry.
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  • Avatar for TheWildCard #4 TheWildCard A year ago
    Great article Bob!

    That stuff about the laughing scene is so great.Edited August 2016 by TheWildCard
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  • Avatar for Ricolas #5 Ricolas A year ago
    Jeremy just accidentally triggered some PTSD. This is going to sound a little negative, but it really isn't. The whole thing is just a product of the times, with pre-merger Enix (rightfully) not really caring about the project while a few lifelong DQ fans at Enix America doing the best with what they had to work with to get the game out.

    The text had all been translated very roughly, and then a small team divvied it up and gave it a few passes, with regular trips to Japanese-fluent people in the office trying to figure out what some of the lines were really supposed to mean. This was long before the days of Dragon Quest having a strong American style guide, but we all knew Dragon Quest dialogue had a much more comedic tone than had come across in the NES localizations of 1-4. It was kind of jointly decided to try and bridge the gap, by creating a serious world with a high level of peasant education but where people tended to be pessimistic and snarky.

    As many of you know and many of you will find out when it rereleases (so excited for that!) you do NOT progress through the timeline linearly, which definitely made for a lot of errors that could only be caught in playtesting. Some of those problems, or similar ones, still made it into the release version as we'd send big spreadsheets of corrections back to Japan which would not always be accurately entered.

    My favorite problem, though, was hardware-based. As bad as the DQ7 graphics looked at the time, they actually put some pretty tremendous strain on the PSX because of how free the camera rotation was in most areas. There were a few areas of the game where the game would completely hardlock and black screen, and it turned out that the size difference between the Japanese and English texts pushed the area above the amount of RAM the system had, so the knife had to fall pretty heavily.

    With the intro and gameplay tuning and following the series' new style guide, I think people are going to really get into DQ7. The island vignettes and how they eventually all fit make for my favorite story in all the DQ games and the reduced grinding and cleaner localization ought to make it easier for everyone to piece together.
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  • Avatar for Macuelos #6 Macuelos A year ago
    What a great cover story to read. It's always interesting to see what goes into making a game, or in this case, making a game into a localised game.

    These are all great topics in the translation - MOTHER 3 in particular is a nice one, because it hasn't got an official translation (yet). The "amateur" scene, even if they are professionals, have to work harder to get their translations into the game. Have to say, though, did not expect the Dragon Warrior VII translation to require this kind of breaking the game down, being an official translation.

    While I understand it's hard to get people to share their time and memories for articles such as these, some other game localisations I would have loved to read about are Ace Attorney Investigations 2 (Gyakuten Kenji 2), Bahamut Lagoon, and Seiken Densetsu 3 (Secret of Mana 2).
    From what I understand of SD3, the entire game was compressed in such a way that the translators had to break the game open completely to even begin gathering the text they wanted to translate. Bahamut Lagoon, I think, had some strange magic system that changed depending on the Japanese symbols you put in there? To translate that, with all the different combinations possible, must have been a real challenge.

    I guess these are all fan translations, though, because the stories for fan localisations are maybe more "out there", in terms of publicity? Games with official translations often don't really put emphasis on the translation woes, I suppose. Definitely interesting, though. The Bravely Second panel at PAX dealt with it a bit, I think...

    Hope to see a part 2 of True Tales from Localisation Hell!
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  • Avatar for nadiaoxford #7 nadiaoxford A year ago
    @Ricolas Wow! And here I thought the "too much text, too little space" problem was utterly eliminated when we switched from cartridges to CDs! Then again, with a game as massive as DQ VII...
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  • Avatar for seejamsrun #8 seejamsrun A year ago
    These are great interviews, Bob. As someone really looking to get into localization this entire article was incredibly illuminating and helpful.
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  • Avatar for Ricolas #9 Ricolas A year ago
    @nadiaoxford My favorite DQ7 comparison is BoF3, which of course looks a lot better, but look at how little you can rotate the camera vs. DQ7's mostly-360 rotation. The PlayStation only had 2MB of system RAM, plus some extra in the GPU, so without being able to actually change what the engine was loading it was pretty easy to accidentally max it out.
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  • Avatar for jeremy.parish #10 jeremy.parish A year ago
    @nadiaoxford The problem with CD-based systems wasn't storage memory but dynamic memory (RAM). With those slow old drives you basically had to dump everything into RAM at once or else you'd have awful load times in the middle of events while the game looked for and swapped in new info. That's why you had such long battle transitions in RPGs. It's also why Chrono Trigger on PS1 was a mess; the game used an emulator that perfectly fit within the hardware's RAM space in Japanese, so it ran fine. But the English text wasn't as compact, so it introduced tons of load time that wasn't accounted for in the original JP release.
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  • Avatar for SargeSmash #11 SargeSmash A year ago
    @Hoolo : I haven't played much Bahamut Lagoon, but the one with the crazy magic system that had to be reworked was Treasure of the Rudras. An excellent game, I might add!

    I remember all the issues folks had in the early days with Seiken Densetsu 3 and the like, and I have tremendous respect for the folks in the fan-translation community. Playing games we missed out on back in the day is awesome!
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  • Avatar for Thad #12 Thad A year ago
    I think this is the best piece USGamer has ever done; kudos.

    @nimzy: Literal translations are just so stilted, and of course there's a list of cliches that just make me want to bang my head against the wall. "You're -- [character's name]!" "I will not forgive you." English speakers don't talk like that! It's fucking distracting!

    I've even seen anime that used the phrase "Please take care of me." That is a weird damn thing to say to somebody in English; the translation should be "Nice to meet you" or similar. No, it doesn't have the same literal meaning, but that's not the point; the point is that it's a traditional greeting given to a person you've just been introduced to.

    Of course, some games are so fundamentally steeped in Japanese culture that some amount of foreign phrasing is reasonable and desirable; Persona is a good example.

    @Ricolas: Always a pleasure to hear stories from the trenches; thanks for sharing.


    (Edited for linebreaks.)Edited August 2016 by Thad
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  • Avatar for Macuelos #13 Macuelos A year ago
    @SargeSmash I knew it was one of those late Square RPGs (haven't played either yet). Those people really did a bang-up job without developer input as to how the games work.
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  • Avatar for tigergt33 #14 tigergt33 A year ago
    Great piece Bob ! Whether it brings positive or negative discourse, it's always fascinating to read the behind-the-scenes challenges of localization.

    Out of curiosity, does anybody know who is in charge of localization duties for the DQ7 3DS remake ?
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  • Avatar for cldmstrsn #15 cldmstrsn A year ago
    @nimzy Shaka
    When the walls fell

    Edited 2 times. Last edited August 2016 by cldmstrsn
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  • Avatar for kevinbowyer34 #16 kevinbowyer34 A year ago
    Terrific article. I enjoyed the translationd of DW VII so kudos to Jeremy B. for all the hard work. One of my favorite games of all time.
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  • Avatar for Timotribal #17 Timotribal A year ago
    Great read. DQ7 was huge. Never made it to the end.
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  • Avatar for Kadrom #18 Kadrom A year ago
    Fantastic article. I recommend the 8-4 podcast episodes where they interview Jeremy B. and Richard Honeywood as companions to this read.

    Re: the localization is censorship debate--I agree with the takes that the localizers had but I think there is still some nuance to the discussion. I 100% agree that the "all translation is censorship" crowd who wants to leave keikaku untranslated are off base. I agree that localization is more about intent/spirit of the content. But I also think some games like Tokyo Mirage Sessions lost some of their original intent in sacrifice to western sensibilities, akin to taking crucifixes out of NES games. But some are just mad because their anime bikinis are gone. Like I said... there's some nuance.
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  • Avatar for softserve #19 softserve A year ago
    @Thad One thing that drives me nuts in particular is proper names versus pronouns. I don't know Japanese, I can only assume in the original text perhaps the character is literally saying "Oh, Softserve is looking at me" --. But it's absolutely bizarre in the context of the dialog a lot of the time, particularly when Softserve is also the person they're saying that to directly.

    You don't get as much of "he" or "she" or "they (I'm wondering if the one quote in this article about the context of Grandma's item is exactly this problem?). It always makes the translation seem shoddy to me, though, when seemingly no attempt is made to address it. A good example of this in recent times was Trillion or Sword Art Online: Hollow Fragment for Vita.
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  • Avatar for Thad #20 Thad A year ago
    @softserve Yeah, great example. The Sky Render fan translation of FF6 is often used as the gold standard of joyless weeaboo literal translations, and Relm constantly referring to herself in the third person was a particularly grating tic.

    Though usually the third person awkwardness isn't in place of first person, but second. It's been over a decade since I took Japanese, but IIRC their equivalent of the word "you" is only used in intimate relationships.

    But pronouns in general are less common in Japanese than English. You're right that that's what the "Grandma's dish" example was getting at.
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  • Avatar for ShadowTheSecond #21 ShadowTheSecond A year ago
    The header art is pretty great--congrats to Nick Daniel on that! So is the article, of course.Edited August 2016 by ShadowTheSecond
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  • Avatar for kevinbowyer34 #22 kevinbowyer34 A year ago
    @cldmstrsn my roommate has a cafe press tshirt of that image. This is only the 2nd time i have seen it in the wild.
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  • Avatar for moochan #23 moochan A year ago
    @Kadrom That's my take on localization. It's one of those "maybe they went a bit too far" argument. I say let the localizers do what they do but there is something to be said that there a time to be creative and a time to be more literal.

    Speaking of Dragon Quest personally I hate Dragon Quest 4 DS localization. The accents were both unneeded and honestly stopped me from continuing the game. And removal of the Party Chat doesn't help. And while they have toned it down them keeping the accents in all the other Dragon Quest games doesn't really make me all that happy.
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  • Avatar for Kadrom #24 Kadrom A year ago
    @moochan I personally found the accents kind of endearing, or at least more personable than the Olde English they used in the NES games. I know Richard Honeywood did the translation for both Chrono Cross and DQIV, and in Chrono Cross giving all the characters their accents was Honeywood's solution to translating the various Japanese dialects the characters all used. I'm not sure if DQIV had the same thing going in the original text or if that was just his creative choice, but he ended up writing the style manual for the series so it has persisted.

    I ended up playing DQIV on iOS/Android tablet which was a bit awkward, but they added the party chat back into the game which made it the definitive version for me.
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  • Avatar for moochan #25 moochan A year ago
    @Kadrom Sadly I just can't play mobile games. The lack of actual buttons stop me from enjoying them. I get that a good number of people enjoy them but DQ4DS just frustrated me. DQ5, 6, and 9 was fine for me since the accents wasn't that heavy. Guess I'm someone that doesn't really enjoy accents in text. Always hated reading Hagrid parts in Harry Potter because of it.
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  • Avatar for mnicolai #26 mnicolai A year ago
    @Ricolas The thing about DQVII that I always feel compelled to remind people of is that the load times between screens were imperceptible. People say it looks like a SNES game, and unlike it's prettier PS1 contemporaries, it played like one as well.

    Mr. Mackey, great read, thank you.Edited August 2016 by mnicolai
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  • Avatar for docexe #27 docexe A year ago
    This was a fantastic article. It’s always great to get this kind of insight on the “behind the scenes”.

    And not going to lie, learning about all the work and challenges that take place during the localization process is part of the reason why I have taken a more nuanced view on it in the past few years, rather than what you could call... well, the “standard online weeaboo pedantry” of my early twenties.
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  • Avatar for riderkicker #28 riderkicker A year ago
    @Ricolas Oh wow. It just sounds like DQ7 was a hallmark of inefficient game design! We should be lucky it didn't destroy many a PS1 with the burden it placed despite its "simplistic" exterior.
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  • Avatar for almasdar #29 almasdar A year ago
    What a great cover story to read. It's always interesting to see what goes into making a game, or in this case, making a game into a localised game.

    These are all great topics in the translation - MOTHER 3 in particular is a nice one, because it hasn't got an official translation (yet). The "amateur" scene, even if they are professionals, have to work harder to get their translations into the game. Have to say, though, did not expect the Dragon Warrior VII translation to require this kind of breaking the game down, being an official translation.

    While I understand it's hard to get people to share their time and memories for articles such as these, some other game localisations I would have loved to read about are Ace Attorney Investigations 2 (Gyakuten Kenji 2), Bahamut Lagoon, and Seiken Densetsu 3 (Secret of Mana 2).
    From what I understand of SD3, the entire game was compressed in such a way that the translators had to break the game open completely to even begin gathering the text they wanted to translate. Bahamut Lagoon, I think, had some strange magic system that changed depending on the Japanese symbols you put in there? To translate that, with all the different combinations possible, must have been a real challenge.

    I guess these are all fan translations, though, because the stories for fan localisations are maybe more "out there", in terms of publicity? Games with official translations often don't really put emphasis on the translation woes, I suppose. Definitely interesting, though. The Bravely Second panel at PAX dealt with it a bit, I think...

    Hope to see a part 2 of True Tales from Localisation Hell!

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